The IoT is a mixture of technologies, with a focus on mobile, as connecting objects on the move is a crucial element of the IoT trend. The IoT will mostly be based on cellular technologies and will use other networks, such as fibre, for backhaul - as in the case of traditional mobile services. Some proprietary technologies, such as Activity and Sigfox, have also emerged, and they focus on what is known as the Low Power Wide Area market, looking at devices which require little bandwidth and long battery life.
At the same time, 5G will be crucial for the IoT, due to the fact that this technology's standard will be based on connecting objects rather than people. We expect that 5G will be fully standardised by the end of 2018, and will continue to evolve after that. In this regard, we note that there have already been trials using new frequencies,