If the player couldn’t tell the human responses apart from the computer, then machines could be truly deemed intelligent. This test has become known as the “Turing test.”
Some AI programs might have this effect. Joseph Weizenbaum’s ELIZA program, which is modeled on Rogerian psychotherapy, has caused some people to believe that they were talking to a human.
ELIZA is a relatively simple program that its creator said had almost no knowledge about the real world.
It appears that some programs can pass for human beings, but most of these have relatively narrow fields of expertise. Researchers believe that they have a long way to go before machines can qualify as truly intelligent. Some major researchers, such as Gary Kurzweil, have offered prizes for people who create programs that really can pass for human beings.