Smart grids consist of two ends, consumer, and utility. There are gateways connected at both the levels – consumer (AMI) and Utility (Substation). At AMI level, the gateway allows distributed edge computing and forms fog computing nodes at substation level. When these gateways are clustered it allows the utility companies to develop a distributed fog computing network. Clustering of gateway also enables inter-gateway communication, providing benefits of horizontal and vertical scaling. For example: If one gateway that is associated with a grid substation fails due to the excess load or any other malfunction, it can transfer the running application container to another substation gateway. This results in the reduction of system failures. Fault identification and solution for the same can be done within a minimum time period. That enables dynamic control on the substations at bigger levels – like city, state or maybe at a country level for the better grid system.
It enables predictive maintenance of the system. It sends a notification to utility companies on the faults identified in the system that would need a quick response. Gateway enables interoperability, providing a wide range of protocols that ensure connectivity to most of the grid components.